Menstruation is also known by the terms menses, menstrual period or period. Menstruation is the monthly shedding of the lining of a women’s uterus (more commonly known as the womb). The menstrual blood—which is partly blood and partly tissue from the inside of the uterus—flows from the uterus through the cervix and out of the body through the vagina.
What is Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal bleeding from the uterus that is not due to pregnancy or other recognizable pathology in the women’s uterus, pelvic or systemic disease. It is a functional problem of the uterus largely due to hormonal imbalance and not related to structural or anatomical problem. It is commonly present as heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia). However, the doctor can only derive to a diagnosis of DUB after all other causes for abnormal and heavy menstrual bleeding in a patient have been investigated and excluded.
Why dysmenorrhoea is a problem
Dysmenorrhoea is medical term for painful menstrual cramp of uterine origin just before the menstrual begin and usually subsided one or two days after. Most of the time it is physiological but it is often associated with endometriosis and other uterine pathology. Studies have shown the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea in female population vary from 45%-95%. It is indeed the most common gynaecological condition in women regardless of age and race and nationality.
What is PCOS?
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age. The name of the condition comes from the appearance of the ovaries in most, but not all, women with the disorder — enlarged and containing numerous small cysts located along the outer edge of each ovary (polycystic appearance). Studies shows about 1 in 10-15 women (5-6%) women in reproductive age are affected by PCOS.
What are ovarian cysts?
A cyst is a fluid-filled sac. They can form anywhere in the body. Ovarian cysts form in or on the ovaries. The most common type of ovarian cyst is a functional cyst.
What is endometriosis?
Endometriosis is a common condition in young women. It’s chronic, painful, and it often progressively gets worse over the time. Normally, the tissue that lines a woman’s uterus, known as the endometrium, is found only in the uterus. But when a woman develops endometriosis, microscopic bits of this tissue escape from the uterus and grow on other organs such as the ovaries, the outer wall of the uterus, the ligaments that support the uterus, and the space between the uterus and the rectum. In rare cases, they can spread outside the abdomen and grow on other organs, such as the lungs.
What is menopause?
Menopause is the point in time when a woman’s menstrual periods stop. Periods can stop for a while and then start again, so a woman is considered to have been through menopause only after a full year without periods. During menopause, the ovaries are no longer producing hormones and the level of oestrogen hormones diminished significantly. The average age of menopause is 51, but for some women it happens in their 40s or later in their 50s. Sometimes called “the change of life,” menopause is a normal part of life. Women spend one third of their life in a postmenopausal state.