- History taking, and physical examination
- Ultrasound Pelvis & Abdomen
- Blood test for Tumour marker assessment and for surveillance
- Hysteroscopy & DD&C procedure, and endometrial sampling for abnormal uterine bleeding
- Surgery: Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAHBSO), Debulking operation of ovarian tumour
- Wertheim’s Hysterectomy (Joint managed with Gynae-Oncologist)
- Follow up and surveillance services after surgery
- Referral to Oncologist for Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy
- Dietary and Nutritional counseling based on anti-ageing medicine concept
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About Gynaecological Cancers
Ovarian cancer often seen in women from two extreme age group, i.e very young women and elderly women. There are many types of ovarian cancer depending on its original cells origin. Embryonic origin tumour like dermoid cyst, or dysgerminoma often seen in young women whilst epithelial tumours often seen in elderly women with ovarian cancer.
Women with ovarian cancer often have no symptoms until the cancer has progressed to the late stages. This is because ovaries are very small organ in the pelvis and it is not easily accessible to palpation. Until today, despite advancement of medical technology, there is no reliable screening method to detect early ovarian cancer which is highly accurate. Not like uterine cancer which present as abnormal uterine bleeding that drives the patient to seek treatment, ovarian tumour mostly are asymptomatic until late stage where patient often complaint of non- specific symptoms like abdominal bloating, loss of appetite and loss of weight.
A suspicion of ovarian cancer may be made following a physical examination, an ultrasound scan or a CT scan, and a blood test for ovarian tumour markers. The diagnosis must then be confirmed with surgery to inspect the abdominal cavity and to take biopsies.
The treatment of ovarian cancer depends on the type and stage of cancer. Treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For women who are keen to preserve their fertility, the possibility of fertility- preserving options should be discussed.
Uterine cancer is a type of cancer that affects the uterus, most commonly in the endometrium or inner lining of the uterus.
Uterine cancer usually presents with irregular menstruation or abnormal vaginal bleeding that occurs after menopause. To confirm the presence or absence of cancer, an endometrial biopsy is necessary e.g. through a dilation and curettage (D&C). During a D&C, the uterus is scraped with an instrument called a curette and the tissue obtained is sent for laboratory testing.
Treatment options depend on the type and stage of uterine cancer. For women with early stage endometrial cancer who are keen to preserve their fertility, the use of hormone therapy may sometimes be considered. However, standard treatment largely revolves around surgery to remove the uterus, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Cervical cancer refers to cancer of the cervix, also known as the neck of the womb.
Women with cervical cancer may present with symptoms such as irregular menstrual bleeding, bleeding after sexual intercourse or a vaginal discharge. On examination, there may be an abnormal – looking cervix or an abnormal PAP smear. The diagnosis is usually confirmed on colposcopy and biopsy of abnormal- looking areas of the cervix.
The management of cervical cancer depends on the type and stage of the disease. In very early stages, surgery alone may be possible. However, if the disease is found to be at the advanced stage, then surgery is usually not an option and treatment would often involve both radiotherapy and chemotherapy.